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佛山限购新政满月 新房交易环比降近四成

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 北京新版租房合同征求意见 租期内不得单方面提高租金 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

北京楼市顶级产品蓄势待战 约2000套增量“肉搏”

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

在苏富比的拍卖会上,有少数几幅作品的拍卖价格远高于预估价,比如德比的约瑟夫·赖特(Joseph Wright of Derby)1780年的一幅风景画,它描绘的是奥古斯都大帝的女儿朱莉叶(Julia)被流放到萨莱诺湾(Gulf of Salerno)的一个洞穴里。
该项目曾在2006年荣获亚军,并在2008年斩获冠军头衔。
一位新浪微博网友写道:“不敢相信这么多医生都在论文中造假。病人还能相信他们可以帮人治病吗?”
发布日期:2015年春季
The UK and France are the two powerhouses of business education in Europe. Nearly half of the schools listed are from either the UK (20) or France (19). French MiMs outperform UK programmes in terms of ranking, salary ($55,000 versus $49,000) and student numbers (9,000 versus 1,200). However, UK MBAs outdo French programmes in terms of numbers (18 schools in this ranking versus five) and student numbers (1,900 versus 1,300) though not in terms of salary ($115,000 versus $137,000).
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●"Woman arrested for defecating on boss’ desk after winning the lottery"

'For what is really exceptional, not seen on the market, there are really clients looking for such investments,'
珍贵的照片显示了古老的性玩具曾经属于中国皇室和贵族。
The local court gave Zhou a lenient sentence due to the teenager's age and frank confession of the crime, according to the report.
我们的前路应有尽有,我们的前路一无所有……
qualified

Footnotes

  • “中国红”走俏:红木资本市场进入上升期
  • 最新的官方资料显示十二月中旬的数据大幅增长,有1200人已经离开或者正谋求去战场加入圣战份子。

在你醒着的时候,肝可以扩大将近一半。新的研究指出,在白天的时候,肝有能力扩大近50%,然后在夜间则会缩回到原始尺寸。肝是我们所知道到的唯一一个可以这样变化的器官。
单词survival 联想记忆:
This whole week was a train wreck: the unconvincing denials, the timing of the Cousins trade on All-Star Sunday, the pathetic return value,
吊床架
新年英文祝福语大全Best wishes for the year to come! 恭贺新禧! Good luck in the year ahead! 祝吉星高照! May you come into a good fortune! 恭喜发财! Live long
It is the eighth straight year that the metropolis has led Chinese cities in terms of consumer spending.

国务院要求提升VOC质量标准 涂料标委会强化工作落实

References

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