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儿童家具进入促销季 不卖便宜卖安全

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 告别暴涨时代 中国家居业迎来转型 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

民法典各分编草案提请审议:不再保留计划生育的有关内容

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

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你没有赚到足够多的钱来支付日常开销
穆里埃塔属于一个叫“五皇后”的黑帮,他们是加州淘金热的高潮期间,臭名昭著的土匪。虽然穆里埃塔的犯罪行为可能没有任何政治色彩,他还是随着来到加州投机的美国定居者,成了墨西哥抵抗的象征。对他而言,这可不是什么好事,而是促使政府悬赏他的人头,导致他被杀和斩首。幸运的是,班德拉斯的角色没有遭到同样的命运。
去年,由于俄罗斯经济陷入衰退,总统普京的工资因此缩减10%,但在此之前,普京2014年4月薪资增长逾两倍,约970万卢布。
"I heard from several business leaders who shared their concern about our relative silence and impact in urging the political leadership to act on behalf of the citizenry," Schultz wrote in a letter on his company's website.
新兴市场需求减弱使2015年成为全球金融危机爆发以来世界贸易最糟糕的一年,凸显出对于全球经济健康的担忧加深。
The London school’s MBA is ranked first in Europe, its EMBA programme, delivered jointly with Columbia Business School in the US, is ranked third and its MiM programme is in the top 10 on its first participation. The MiM ranking was the last missing piece for LBS to come first in Europe.

同样的,中国官方最初已批准了凯蒂·派瑞去上海参加维密秀的签证申请,但很快又取消了她的签证。据称,这是因为这位歌手2015年在台湾举办演唱会的时候曾举着一面台湾旗帜并穿着一件印着向日葵的连衣裙。
Treating Birth Defects Before a Baby Is Born
巴西政府动用数十亿资金建立新球场或扩建现有球场已触发众怒,并导致票价飞涨,这是路人皆知的事情。对此,一些球迷抱怨,曾经负担得起的现场体验变得更加昂贵,想要去诸如马拉卡纳等传奇球馆的热情也变淡了。
They expect the heat to get much worse over coming decades, but already it is killing forests around the world, driving plants and animals to extinction, melting land ice and causing the seas to rise at an accelerating pace.
以下是专家提供的,明年的生存和发展建议:

Footnotes

  • 东莞前11月新房涨幅大幅下降
  • 7成以上受访者表示,实现自我价值是创业的最大动机。

单词receptive 联想记忆:
如果你是一个工薪阶层的白人,担心这个充满国际性的新世界会摧毁或贬抑你所珍视的身份认同,那么你并没有一种在文化上能够被接受的方式,去阐明自己内心感受到的危机。
The National Basketball Association (NBA) Global Games is to feature two pre-season games in China between the Golden State Warriors and the Minnesota Timberwolves, the NBA announced.
2010 S&P 500 index (year-end): 1300
伊法斯夫拉腾以英国独立党(U.K. Independence Party)为例,它的官方平台力主脱欧,但是面向选民的宣传中又强调移民对经济与文化的影响,她说这是一种混合了务实与民粹的论调。
纸筒插秧机

长沙项目挂图催生“高新”速度

References

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